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Anemanthele lessoniana (Wind Grass, Gossamer Grass)
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Wind Grass, Gossamer Grass (Anemanthele lessoniana)

Anemanthele lessoniana, commonly known as Wind Grass, is a species of ornamental grass that is native to New Zealand. It is a perennial grass that is known for its distinctive and attractive appearance, making it a popular choice in ornamental gardens and landscapes.

Anemanthele lessoniana typically grows in clumps, with tufts of arching, narrow leaves that are about 100cm in height. The leaves are green during the growing season, but as they mature, they turn bronze or coppery in color, creating a striking display of warm hues in the garden. The leaves are thin and wiry, and they flutter and sway gracefully in the wind, giving the grass its common name, "Wind Grass".

In addition to its unique foliage, Anemanthele lessoniana produces attractive flowers in the summer months. The flowers are small, airy, and feathery, and they are typically held on tall stems that rise above the foliage. The flowers may be purplish or bronze in color, adding further interest to the overall appearance of the grass.

Anemanthele lessoniana is a hardy grass that is relatively low-maintenance. It prefers well-draining soil and is tolerant of a wide range of growing conditions, including coastal areas and exposed sites. It is also drought-tolerant once established, making it suitable for xeriscaping or water-wise gardens. Anemanthele lessoniana is typically grown as an accent plant in borders, mass plantings, or as a focal point in a garden. It is also used in dried flower arrangements, where its unique texture and color add interest and depth.

Overall, Anemanthele lessoniana is a visually appealing ornamental grass that adds a touch of elegance and movement to garden landscapes. Its unique foliage, attractive flowers, and low-maintenance nature make it a popular choice among gardeners and landscape designers alike.

Performing best when planted in full sun on a well-drained site. It is tolerant of short periods of dry, coastal conditions, frost, and cool climates, but will not tolerate prolonged wet.

Habitat: Sea level to montane forest, forest margins, scrub and on cliff faces and associated talus.

Flowering: Summer [December - January]
Fruiting:    Summer [February]


Apodasmia similis (Oioi, Jointed Wire Rush)
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Oioi, Jointed Wire Rush (Apodasmia similis)

Apodasmia similis, commonly called oioi, is an attractive wetland reed with fine grey-green leaves and brownish bracts at the joints. Popular structural landscaping plant. A great option for mass planting on wet or coastal sites, growing in extremes of wind and salt.

A hardy plant tolerant of most soil types that is often used in riparian plantings. Plant communities that include Carex maorica, Carex secta, Carex virgata, Carex geminata, Phormium tenax and Eleocharis acuta often include Apodasmia similis. Recently, Apodasmia similis has become popular in landscape designs as it has an interesting texture and survives in a range of positions and is an easy NZ natives solution to wet or dry problem areas.

Habitat: Mostly coastal in estuaries, saltmarshes, dunes and sandy flats and hollows. Occasionally inland in gumland scrub, along lake margins, fringing peat bogs or surrounding hot springs.

Flowering: Spring [October - December]
Fruiting:    Summer [December - March]

My Lists: DrainField, Erosion Control, Rongoa, Wetland


Austroderia richardii (Toetoe)
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Toetoe (Austroderia richardii) Sold Out

Austroderia richardii, commonly known as toetoe, is a large perennial tussock grass species that is native to New Zealand. It belongs to the family Poaceae and is endemic to the country, meaning it is found nowhere else in the world.

Austroderia richardii has distinctive features that make it easily recognizable as its one of the tallest grass species in New Zealand. The leaves are long and narrow, with a rough texture, and can grow up to 1.5 meters in length. The leaf margins are often serrated or toothed, giving them a slightly serrated appearance.

Austroderia richardii is typically found in wetland habitats, such as swamps, bogs, and riverbanks, although it can also occur in other types of habitats, including coastal dunes and forest clearings. It is an important plant for wetland ecosystems, providing habitat and food for a variety of birds, insects, and other wildlife.

Toetoe has been used by Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, for various purposes. The leaves have been used for weaving, thatching, and as bedding material, while the flower heads have been used for decorative purposes. Today, Austroderia richardii is also cultivated as an ornamental grass in gardens and landscaping due to its impressive size and striking appearance.

Overall, Austroderia richardii, or toetoe, is a prominent grass species in New Zealand, known for its tall stature, feathery flower heads, and importance in wetland ecosystems and cultural uses. A very tough, hardy and fast growing withstanding strong winds, costal conditions, drought and cold conditions.

On farm,  Austroderia richardii is a good wind break once established as they grow in clumps and are very hardy plants that can withstand many weather conditions. Protects stock and stays below pivot irrigation, also useful in runoff prevention and along water courses. Toe toe is an attractive bank stabilisation plant, good for a range of soils and suits riparian plantings.

Habitat: Abundant, from the coast to subalpine areas. Common along stream banks, river beds, around lake margins, and in other wet places. Also found in sand dunes.

Flowering: Spring [September - November]
Fruiting:    Summer [October - March]

My Lists: DrainField, Erosion Control, Rongoa, Wetland


Carex secta (Pukio, Swamp Sedge)
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Pukio, Swamp Sedge (Carex secta)

Carex secta, commonly called Swamp Sedge or Pukio, is a well known species and it is a most useful plant for use in re-establishing or enhancing wetland areas. Common to swampy areas and in standing water and it is a most useful plant for use in enhancing wetlands and ponds. Older plants in moist to wet sites, often form thick trunk-like bases 1 metre tall from its own tightly matted roots. It takes on a yellow-green colour in open situations with the colour being intensified in the Winter. Attractive dark brown seed heads in summer. Great for bank stabilisation and riparian planting.

Endemic to New Zealand, found throughout the country. Carex secta is riparian species. It is often found in plant communities that include but are not limited to Apodasmia similis, Carex maorica, Carex virgata, Phormium tenax, and Eleocharis acuta.

Habitat: Widespread in suitable wetlands from coastal to montane wetlands.

Flowering: Summer [October - January]
Fruiting:    Autumn [October - March]

My Lists: DrainField, Erosion Control, Wetland


Carex virgata (Pukio, Swamp Sedge)
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Pukio, Swamp Sedge (Carex virgata) Sold Out

Carex virgata, commonly called Swamp Sedge or Pukio, is a vigorous sedge suitable for swamps, drain margins, seepages and wet pastures. A successful colonising plant, used for wetland planting and revegetation. Suitable for conditions which may vary periodically from very wet to very dry. More dry tolerant and shorter than C. secta. Evergreen. Hardy.

It pairs well with Carex secta (also called Pukio) for bank stabilisation. As it handles being in a swampy area, it is ideal for lower bank planting in riparian revegetation projects. It is also useful in water treatment projects as it minimises nutrient runoff. This makes it ideal for planting streamside on farms.

Carex virgata is widespread in open, swampy conditions and also in damp sites within lowland forest. In parts of the country this sedge is often the dominant carice of lowland alluvial forest. Found in communities that include but are not limited to Apodasmia similis, Carex maorica, Carex secta, Phormium tenax, and Eleocharis acuta.

Habitat: Widespread from sea level to about 1000 m a.s.l. in open, swampy conditions and also in damp sites within lowland forest. In parts of the country this sedge is often the dominant carice of lowland alluvial forest.

Flowering: Spring [October - December]
Fruiting:    Summer [December - May]

My Lists: DrainField, Wetland


Chionochloa rubra (Red Tussock)
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Red Tussock (Chionochloa rubra)

Chionochloa rubra, commonly known as Red Tussock grass, is a species of tussock that is native to New Zealand. It is a perennial grass that belongs to the Poaceae family and is known for its distinctive appearance and ecological importance.

Chionochloa rubra forms large, dense tussocks that can reach heights of up to 1.5 meters tall, although some specimens can grow taller in favorable conditions. The leaves are long, narrow, and stiff, with leaf edges are often rolled inward, giving them a tubular appearance. The tussocks are often reddish-brown at the base, which gives the species its common name "red tussock."

Chionochloa rubra plays a vital ecological role in New Zealand's ecosystems. The dense tussocks provide shelter and nesting sites for native birds. The tussocks also help prevent erosion by stabilizing soil with their extensive root systems, and they can trap and store snow, which helps regulate water flow in alpine catchments. Additionally, Chionochloa rubra is an important food source for native insects and other herbivores, and it contributes to nutrient cycling in the ecosystem.

Red tussock is a most adaptable vegetation which will grow in the exposed and windy environment. It can tolerate low-nutritious, and also can grow in relatively wet or dry soil conditions. It is harsh enough to use one individual specimen plant however, if space allowed, would be better for planted several as a group. Red tussock is a useful vegetation for helping to reestablish wildlife habitat, especially useful as a buffer plant around wetland areas.

Habitat: Subalpine to alpine (rarely upper montane). Often the dominant of tussock grassland, also found within shallow bogs or fringing the margins of deeper bogs and small ponds, tarns and slow flowing streams. Occasionally in canopy gaps in upper montane forest or within subalpine scrub.

Flowering: Spring [October - December]
Fruiting:    Summer [November - May]

My Lists: DrainField, Erosion Control


Coprosma Beatsons Gold
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Coprosma Beatsons Gold

Coprosma Beatson's Gold is a compact rounded shrub with small foliage that are variegated green and yellow. Hardy evergreen that tolerates coastal conditions and frosts. Likes full sun and may be grown as a feature plant, hedging or as a groundcover. Insignificant, pale green flowers in spring are followed by bright red fruit in autumn. Can be trimmed to shape.

Flowering: Spring [September - November]
Fruiting:    Autumn [March - May]


Coprosma Black Cloud
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Coprosma Black Cloud

Coprosma Black Cloud is a low growing, evergreen shrub renowned for its dark foliage.  The tiny leaves on this NZ native are black-bronze and held densely on rigid stems.  It grows with a tidy, rounded habit to about 40 cm tall and 1.0 m wide, giving the strongest leaf colourings when planted in full sun on a well-drained site.  It will also grow well in partial shade but tends to lose its denseness and colouring will be lighter.  It is also tolerant of dry periods, frost, cold climates, wind, and coastal conditions.  Black Cloud is commonly added to a mixed planting, used as a groundcover, included in borders, or mass planted on a bank. Excellent for supressing weeds.

Flowering: Spring [September - November]
Fruiting:    Autumn [March - May]


Coprosma brunnea (Brown Stemmed Coprosma)
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Brown Stemmed Coprosma (Coprosma brunnea)

Coprosma brunnea is one of 45 species of Genus Coprosma that are found in New Zealand. A hardy wiry shrubby groundcover that is very tough and suitable for harsh conditions. Dense and bushy with attractive chocolate brown coloured foliage, grows tight and covers well. Ideal for trimming and mass planting on banks and swales, or sprawling down steep hill faces. Very small flowers develop from August to October among the branches and the female plant, in January, develop 5-6 mm long drupes which are a translucent sky-blue or are translucent white with blue flecks.

They also provide habitat for New Zealand’s declining lizard and gecko populations. As attractors of these small animals, they are a pioneer shrub in revegetation projects. Mingimingi provides a tough shelter, providing good food for native birds and lizards, as well as ground cover for these. Hardier the C. acerosa.

Coprosma species have small unisexual flowers that are borne on different plants (dioecious) and they have a fleshy fruit (drupe).

Habitat: Plains to subalpine. Coprosma brunnea grows in lowland to higher montane river beds up to 1500m in open grassland and rocky places on the South and Stewart Islands of New Zealand.

Flowering: Spring [August - December]
Fruiting:    Summer - Autumn [January - June]

My Lists: DrainField, Erosion Control


Coprosma Hawera
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Coprosma Hawera

Coprosma Hawera is a NZ native shrub that grows naturally in coastal locations.  It grows as a tightly tangled mound of small, orange stems bearing small, green leaves.  This evergreen is fast growing and requires only the odd trim to encourage fresh, new growth.  It grows as a mound to about 20 cm tall and 1.0 m wide, performing best when grown in full sun or partial shade on a well-drained site.  It tolerates dry periods, frost, wind, coastal conditions, and will grow well in almost any location that has good drainage.  Hawera is commonly mass planted either as a groundcover or on a bank, included in rock or coastal gardens, or planted along the edge of a wall or path where it can to spill over the edge.


Coprosma Kirkii (Groundcover Coprosma)
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Groundcover Coprosma (Coprosma Kirkii)

Coprosma Kirkii is a dense, vigorous, sprawling shrub with small, glossy mid-green leaves. Used extensively for bank stabilising, coastal planting and as a fast groundcover. Suitable for erosion control especially on coastal sites. Evergreen. Hardy.

My Lists: DrainField, Erosion Control


Coprosma Lobster (Needle-leaved Mountain Coprosma)
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Needle-leaved Mountain Coprosma (Coprosma Lobster)

Coprosma Lobster is an attractive variant of Coprosma rugosa. An extremely tough native shrub with interesting texture. Foliage is a vibrant red with a mass of interwoven branches. Excellent for mass planting and low hedges. Thrives in sun or part shade. Evergreen. Hardy.

Flowering: Summer [October - November]
Fruiting:    Autumn [February - April]


Coprosma Pride
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Coprosma Pride

Coprosma Pride is a compact dense shrub with neat habit. Glossy small multi-coloured leaf of green with splashes of yellow and orange. Can be clipped for a perfect hedge. Prefers a full sun position for best colour, but will tolerate partial shade. Suitable for most soil types as long as they’re well drained. Easy to grow and suitable for coastal planting.

 


Coprosma propinqua (Mingimingi)
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Mingimingi (Coprosma propinqua)

Coprosma propinqua, commonly known as Mingimingi, is a species of evergreen shrub or small tree that is native to New Zealand. It belongs to the family Rubiaceae and is known for its distinctive foliage and attractive appearance.

Coprosma propinqua exhibits a compact and bushy growth habit, typically reaching a height of 1 to 3 meters. The leaves are opposite, simple, and small, measuring about 1 to 3 centimeters in length. The leaves are elliptical or lanceolate in shape, with smooth margins, and are usually glossy and dark green in color. Some varieties may have variegated leaves with contrasting colors, such as yellow or cream markings.

The flowers of Coprosma propinqua are small and inconspicuous, typically greenish or yellowish in color. They are borne in clusters and are not particularly showy. The plant is dioecious, which means that male and female flowers are borne on separate plants.

The fruit of Coprosma propinqua is a fleshy drupe, typically spherical or ovoid in shape, and about 5 to 7 millimeters in diameter. The fruit initially appears green, but matures to a dark purple or black color when ripe. The fruit is often eaten by birds, which help to disperse the seeds.

Coprosma propinqua is commonly found in various habitats in New Zealand, including forests, shrublands, and coastal areas. It is known for its ability to tolerate a wide range of growing conditions, including poor soils and exposure to salt spray, making it a hardy and adaptable plant. It is also known to have medicinal properties and has been used traditionally by Maori for various purposes.

In cultivation, Coprosma propinqua is often used as an ornamental plant in gardens and landscapes due to its attractive foliage and low maintenance requirements. It can be grown as a standalone specimen plant, or used as a hedge or ground cover. It is typically propagated by seeds or cuttings, and prefers well-drained soils and a sunny to partly shaded location.

Habitat: Found in lowland forest, along forest margins and streambanks, in scrub, gravelly places and along the edges of bogs and swamps.

Flowering: Spring [October - November]
Fruiting:    Autumn [March - May]

My Lists: DrainField, Rongoa, Wetland


Coprosma Red Rocks (Groundcover Coprosma)
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Groundcover Coprosma (Coprosma Red Rocks)

Coprosma Red Rocks is a divaricating native plant with small needle-like orange-red foliage, is found naturally near coastlines throughout N.Z. The colour intensifies with colder temperatures. An excellent groundcover plant for hot, dry conditions, on banks or as under planting. Very tolerant of wind, salt and dry periods. Hardy.

Flowering: Spring [September - November]
Fruiting:    Autumn [March - May] 


Coprosma rugosa (Needle-leaved Mountain Coprosma)
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Needle-leaved Mountain Coprosma (Coprosma rugosa)

Coprosma rugosa is a hardy native shrub good for exposed sites. A divaricating shrub selected for its texture and structure. Excellent for mass planting, hedged or low maintenance, structure plantings. Evergreen. Hardy.

Habitat: Found in lowland, montane and subalpine grasslands, scrublands and forest margins.

Flowering: Spring [October - November]
Fruiting:    Autumn [February - April]


Coprosma Taiko
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Coprosma Taiko

Coprosma Taiko is a vigorous prostrate dense shrub with dark green foliage turning dark purplish colour in winter. It has inconspicuous flowers which are followed in autumn by blue berries. A great groundcover or rockery plant with a springy feel and look to the intertwining branches. Works well a part of a native garden. It can tolerate windy and coastal conditions. Evergreen. Hardy.

Flowering: Summer [December - January]
Fruiting:    Autumn [February - April]


Corokia cotoneaster (Korokio)
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Korokio (Corokia cotoneaster)

Corokia cotoneaster, or Korokio, is a good hedging and ornamental shrub. Corokia cotoneaster prefers to survive in areas that are not wet. It will grow and develop in dry, rocky, and dense soils. Attractive fine silver/grey foliage with bright yellow flowers in early summer. Densely interlaced branchlets. Red berries/seed. Evergreen. Very hardy to drought and cold.

As it is a tough plant that attracts birds and lizards, it is suitable for restoration projects. As part of the dry woodland community, it plays an important role in conditioning the soil. The soil conditioning creates a more hospitable environment for less robust species and broadleaf/podocarp forest succession. Other plants in this community include but are not limited to Discaria toumatou, Poa cita, Ozothamnus leptophyllus, Sophora prostrata, Melicytus alpinus and Cordyline australis.

Habitat: Found in scrub and on dry river flats and rocky places throughout the country.

Flowering: Spring [September - December]
Fruiting:    Summer - Autumn [January - May]

My Lists: DrainField


Cyperus ustulatus (Upoko-Tangata, Giant Umbrella Sedge)
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Upoko-Tangata, Giant Umbrella Sedge (Cyperus ustulatus) Sold Out

Cyperus ustulatus, giant umbrella sedge, is a fast growing sharp-edged swamp grass with olive green leaves. Ideal for wetland re-vegetation. Quick to colonize damp areas which will eventually establish tall swamp forests. The arching dark green foliage is complemented with green flowers in summer which age to a showy brown.

History of use: Colenso 1869 reported that the Maoris stripped off outside edges of the leaves and use them for mats, baskets and for kite making. An upoko-tangata kite was featured on a set of matariki (Maori New Year) stamps issued by New Zealand Post in 2010. They also use the leaves as an outer thatch on their whares (dwellings). Medically the pith was boiled with water, strained and used in the North Auckland districts for kidney trouble (Adams 1945).

Habitat: Coastal to lowland sites in open ground. Tolerant of a wide range of habitats and conditions but evidently preferring wetland margins, seepages, streamsides, lagoon and estuary margins.

Flowering: Spring - Summer [July - December]
Fruiting:    Summer - Autumn [July - April]

My Lists: DrainField, Rongoa, Wetland


Leptinella squalida (Brass Buttons)
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Brass Buttons (Leptinella squalida)

Leptinella squalida, Brass Buttons, is a gray-green creeper with little green leaves that resemble fern fronds. A dense mat-forming perennial, Leptinella squalida turns bronze in autumn. Sometimes called New Zealand Brass Buttons, its tiny yellow button blooms often go unnoticed.  It will tolerate moderate foot traffic. Leptinella squalida prefers partial shade to shade and well draining soil.

Habitat: Mostly coastal or inland (0-300 m a.s.l.), in open turf, on coastal cliffs, in coastal turf, along river beds or in open grassland and open, damp places within shrubland and lowland forest.

Flowering: Spring - Summer [August - February]
Fruiting:    Summer - Autumn [December - June]


Lobelia angulata (Panakenake, Pratia Angulata)
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Panakenake, Pratia Angulata (Lobelia angulata)

Pratia angulata, now known as Lobelia angulata or Panakenake, is a low-growing perennial plant that belongs to the Campanulaceae family. It is native to New Zealand and Australia and is known for its attractive, star-shaped blue flowers and dense mat-like growth habit.

The leaves of Pratia angulata are small, opposite, and rounded, measuring about 1-2 centimeters in diameter. They are glossy, dark green in color, and have serrated edges. The stems are creeping and angular, hence the species name "angulata," and can grow up to 30 centimeters in length.

The most distinctive feature of Pratia angulata is its flowers. The flowers are solitary and have five blue petals fused at the base, forming a star-like shape, hence the common name "Blue Star Creeper." The flowers are usually about 1-1.5 centimeters in diameter and have a yellow center. They are profuse bloomers and appear in spring and summer, attracting pollinators like bees and butterflies.

Pratia angulata is a ground-covering plant that forms a dense, spreading mat of foliage, making it an excellent choice for use as a lawn substitute or as a ground cover in rock gardens, between stepping stones, or in other areas where a low-growing plant is desired. It prefers partial to full sun and well-draining soil, and it can tolerate some foot traffic. Pratia angulata is considered a hardy plant and is relatively low-maintenance, making it a popular choice for landscape use in suitable climates. Dies back in winter in cold winter areas.

Habitat: Found in damp, sheltered paces up to 1,500m.

Flowering: Spring - Summer [October - March]
Fruiting:    Autumn [February - April]


Phormium cookianum (Wharariki, Mountain Flax)
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Wharariki, Mountain Flax (Phormium cookianum)

Phormium cookianum, Wharariki, is commonly called Mountain Flax, is a superb species, one of the hardiest and the most striking. Long arching green leaves all year round, and 2 metre long flower stalks over summer - particularly attractive to native birds. Use as a 'groundbreaker' in new gardens, en masse on banks. Foliage and flowers are great for floral artwork.

Phormium cookianum is a flax up to 1-3 metres tall but generally smaller than Phormium tenax. The numerous leaves are 5-12cm wide, thick, fibrous, droopy, and rise from fan-like bases. The tubular 25-40 mm long flowers are a dull pink or yellow colour. The seed capsule is pendulous and twisted. 

Habitat: Strictly confined to subalpine, alpine situations, where it mainly grows on cliffs and mountain slopes, in seepages, along stream sides or on the margins of bogs.

Flowering: Spring [October to December]
Fruiting:    Summer [January to March]

My Lists: DrainField, Rongoa


Phormium cookianum Purpurea (Purple Mountain Flax)
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Purple Mountain Flax (Phormium cookianum Purpurea)

Phormium cookianum Purpurea is a red foliaged variety of the Mountain Flax. Flower spikes rise above the plant and bear twisted looking flowers, to which birds are attracted for the nectar. Curiously, many of the red varieties don't flower, however the purples, greens and yellows do.

Flowering: Spring [October to December]
Fruiting:    Summer [January to March]