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Apodasmia similis (Oioi, Jointed Wire Rush)
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Oioi, Jointed Wire Rush (Apodasmia similis)

Apodasmia similis, commonly called oioi, is an attractive wetland reed with fine grey-green leaves and brownish bracts at the joints. Popular structural landscaping plant. A great option for mass planting on wet or coastal sites, growing in extremes of wind and salt.

A hardy plant tolerant of most soil types that is often used in riparian plantings. Plant communities that include Carex maorica, Carex secta, Carex virgata, Carex geminata, Phormium tenax and Eleocharis acuta often include Apodasmia similis. Recently, Apodasmia similis has become popular in landscape designs as it has an interesting texture and survives in a range of positions and is an easy NZ natives solution to wet or dry problem areas.

Habitat: Mostly coastal in estuaries, saltmarshes, dunes and sandy flats and hollows. Occasionally inland in gumland scrub, along lake margins, fringing peat bogs or surrounding hot springs.

Flowering: Spring [October - December]
Fruiting:    Summer [December - March]

My Lists: DrainField, ErosionControl, Rongoa, Wetland

Austroderia richardii (Toetoe)
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Toetoe (Austroderia richardii) Sold Out

Austroderia richardii, commonly known as toetoe, is a large perennial tussock grass species that is native to New Zealand. It belongs to the family Poaceae and is endemic to the country, meaning it is found nowhere else in the world.

Austroderia richardii has distinctive features that make it easily recognizable as its one of the tallest grass species in New Zealand. The leaves are long and narrow, with a rough texture, and can grow up to 1.5 meters in length. The leaf margins are often serrated or toothed, giving them a slightly serrated appearance.

Austroderia richardii is typically found in wetland habitats, such as swamps, bogs, and riverbanks, although it can also occur in other types of habitats, including coastal dunes and forest clearings. It is an important plant for wetland ecosystems, providing habitat and food for a variety of birds, insects, and other wildlife.

Toetoe has been used by Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, for various purposes. The leaves have been used for weaving, thatching, and as bedding material, while the flower heads have been used for decorative purposes. Today, Austroderia richardii is also cultivated as an ornamental grass in gardens and landscaping due to its impressive size and striking appearance.

Overall, Austroderia richardii, or toetoe, is a prominent grass species in New Zealand, known for its tall stature, feathery flower heads, and importance in wetland ecosystems and cultural uses. A very tough, hardy and fast growing withstanding strong winds, costal conditions, drought and cold conditions.

On farm,  Austroderia richardii is a good wind break once established as they grow in clumps and are very hardy plants that can withstand many weather conditions. Protects stock and stays below pivot irrigation, also useful in runoff prevention and along water courses. Toe toe is an attractive bank stabilisation plant, good for a range of soils and suits riparian plantings.

Habitat: Abundant, from the coast to subalpine areas. Common along stream banks, river beds, around lake margins, and in other wet places. Also found in sand dunes.

Flowering: Spring [September - November]
Fruiting:    Summer [October - March]

My Lists: Coastal, DrainField, ErosionControl, Rongoa, Wetland

Carex secta (Pukio, Swamp Sedge)
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Pukio, Swamp Sedge (Carex secta)

Carex secta, commonly called Swamp Sedge or Pukio, is a well known species and it is a most useful plant for use in re-establishing or enhancing wetland areas. Common to swampy areas and in standing water and it is a most useful plant for use in enhancing wetlands and ponds. Older plants in moist to wet sites, often form thick trunk-like bases 1 metre tall from its own tightly matted roots. It takes on a yellow-green colour in open situations with the colour being intensified in the Winter. Attractive dark brown seed heads in summer. Great for bank stabilisation and riparian planting.

Endemic to New Zealand, found throughout the country. Carex secta is riparian species. It is often found in plant communities that include but are not limited to Apodasmia similis, Carex maorica, Carex virgata, Phormium tenax, and Eleocharis acuta.

Habitat: Widespread in suitable wetlands from coastal to montane wetlands.

Flowering: Summer [October - January]
Fruiting:    Autumn [October - March]

My Lists: DrainField, ErosionControl, Wetland

Chionochloa rubra (Red Tussock)
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Red Tussock (Chionochloa rubra)

Chionochloa rubra, commonly known as Red Tussock grass, is a species of tussock that is native to New Zealand. It is a perennial grass that belongs to the Poaceae family and is known for its distinctive appearance and ecological importance.

Chionochloa rubra forms large, dense tussocks that can reach heights of up to 1.5 meters tall, although some specimens can grow taller in favorable conditions. The leaves are long, narrow, and stiff, with leaf edges are often rolled inward, giving them a tubular appearance. The tussocks are often reddish-brown at the base, which gives the species its common name "red tussock."

Chionochloa rubra plays a vital ecological role in New Zealand's ecosystems. The dense tussocks provide shelter and nesting sites for native birds. The tussocks also help prevent erosion by stabilizing soil with their extensive root systems, and they can trap and store snow, which helps regulate water flow in alpine catchments. Additionally, Chionochloa rubra is an important food source for native insects and other herbivores, and it contributes to nutrient cycling in the ecosystem.

Red tussock is a most adaptable vegetation which will grow in the exposed and windy environment. It can tolerate low-nutritious, and also can grow in relatively wet or dry soil conditions. It is harsh enough to use one individual specimen plant however, if space allowed, would be better for planted several as a group. Red tussock is a useful vegetation for helping to reestablish wildlife habitat, especially useful as a buffer plant around wetland areas.

Habitat: Subalpine to alpine (rarely upper montane). Often the dominant of tussock grassland, also found within shallow bogs or fringing the margins of deeper bogs and small ponds, tarns and slow flowing streams. Occasionally in canopy gaps in upper montane forest or within subalpine scrub.

Flowering: Spring [October - December]
Fruiting:    Summer [November - May]

My Lists: DrainField, ErosionControl

Coprosma acerosa (Tataraheke, Sand Coprosma)
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Tataraheke, Sand Coprosma (Coprosma acerosa)

Coprosma acerosa, or sand coprosma, is a groundcover that is found naturally near the coast throughout New Zealand. Great for windy, coastal areas which get dry winds. The small needle-like deep green leaves clothe the intertangling branches that form springy mounds with a spread of up to 1m. Useful grown in areas prone to erosion, on banks, or over walls. Can also be easily incorporated into mixed shrub planting as a ground cover. In addition to bank stabilisation and as a mixed groundcover, native gecko species love the berries. As a result, this is a good addition to a revegetation project looking to increase biodiversity in the area. When plants of both sexes are present, attractive smoky blue berries follow the tiny green flowers. This is an excellent plant for coastal areas and hot dry conditions.

Habitat: Coastal sand dunes.

Flowering: Spring [September - December]
Fruiting:    Autumn [February - May]

My Lists: ErosionControl, PoorSoils, Rongoa

Coprosma brunnea (Brown Stemmed Coprosma)
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Brown Stemmed Coprosma (Coprosma brunnea)

Coprosma brunnea is one of 45 species of Genus Coprosma that are found in New Zealand. A hardy wiry shrubby groundcover that is very tough and suitable for harsh conditions. Dense and bushy with attractive chocolate brown coloured foliage, grows tight and covers well. Ideal for trimming and mass planting on banks and swales, or sprawling down steep hill faces. Very small flowers develop from August to October among the branches and the female plant, in January, develop 5-6 mm long drupes which are a translucent sky-blue or are translucent white with blue flecks.

They also provide habitat for New Zealand’s declining lizard and gecko populations. As attractors of these small animals, they are a pioneer shrub in revegetation projects. Mingimingi provides a tough shelter, providing good food for native birds and lizards, as well as ground cover for these. Hardier the C. acerosa.

Coprosma species have small unisexual flowers that are borne on different plants (dioecious) and they have a fleshy fruit (drupe).

Habitat: Plains to subalpine. Coprosma brunnea grows in lowland to higher montane river beds up to 1500m in open grassland and rocky places on the South and Stewart Islands of New Zealand.

Flowering: Spring [August - December]
Fruiting:    Summer - Autumn [January - June]

My Lists: DrainField, ErosionControl

Coprosma Kirkii (Groundcover Coprosma)
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Groundcover Coprosma (Coprosma Kirkii)

Coprosma Kirkii is a dense, vigorous, sprawling shrub with small, glossy mid-green leaves. Used extensively for bank stabilising, coastal planting and as a fast groundcover. Suitable for erosion control especially on coastal sites. Evergreen. Hardy.

My Lists: DrainField, ErosionControl

Coprosma robusta (Karamu)
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Karamu (Coprosma robusta)

Coprosma robusta, Karamu, is a fast-growing shelter, hedging and nurse plant. Competes well with gorse. Laden with bright-orange fruit/seeds March-July. As with other Coprosma species, their berries are ideal for attracting birds, especially bellbirds, tuis and waxeye. This is one of the many reasons why Coprosma robusta is a pioneer revegetation species. Its wide, bright green leaves are thick, smooth, and shiny. Can be confused with C. lucida. Shade tolerant. Suits low-frost sites. Evergreen.

History of use: Karamū is used for a variety of purposes in human culture. The fruit that Coprosma robusta produces can be eaten, and the shoots of Karamū are sometimes used for medical purposes.

Habitat: Common throughout coastal, lowland and lower montane habitats within shrublands and open sites within forest.

Flowering: Spring [August - November]
Fruiting:    Autumn [February - May]

My Lists: ErosionControl, Rongoa

Cordyline australis (Ti Kouka, Cabbage Tree)
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Ti Kouka, Cabbage Tree (Cordyline australis)

Cordyline australis, Ti Kouka, commonly called Cabbage Tree, is one of the most identifiable New Zealand native plants in the landscape. It has a tall straight trunk or trunks and a dense round head, with a sphere of long narrow leaves. Cabbage tree produces a profusion of attractive and scented flowers in spring. It is an abundant seeder. It looks most natural in the ornamental garden if planted in groups. Three or more plants can be planted together in the same hole to produce this effect. It grows in all soils and situations, even in swampy ground, where little else of interest will grow.

Cordyline australis is a light-demanding pioneer species, and seedlings die when overtopped by other trees. To grow well, young plants require open space so they are not shaded out by other vegetation. Its fruit and nectar are a favourite food source for kererū and tūī. Bellbirds like to nest in Tī Kōuka. Some lizards forage among the flowers of Cordyline australis and the nectar of the flowers is sought after by insects.

History of use: The Maoris obtained a most nutritious food, kauru, from the root of the young cabbage tree. This root is an extension of the trunk below the surface of the ground and is shaped like an enormous carrot some 2–3 ft long. An observer of the early 1840s, Edward Shortland, noted that the Maoris “prefer those grown in deep rich soil; they have learned to dig it at the season when it contains the greatest quantity of saccharine matter; that is, just before the flowering of the plant. They then bake, or rather steam it in their ovens. On cooling, the sugar is partially crystallised, and is found mixed with other matter between the fibres of the root, which are easily separated by tearing them asunder, and are then dipped in water and chewed”. The trunk of the cabbage tree is so fire-resistant that early European settlers used it to make chimneys for their huts. They also brewed beer from the root.

Medical Uses: An infusion of the leaves was used for dysentery and diarrhoea and for cuts. (From "Maori medical lore" by W. H. Goldie. 1905) The leaves were softened by rubbing and scraping. These scrapings were applied as an ointment to cuts, cracks in the skin and sores (from unpublished notes by Beryl Moore 1940). The younger inner shoots and the top of the stem were boiled and eaten by nursing mothers and were given to their children for colic. (From unpublished notes by T. Kururangi 1941)

Habitat: Widespread and common from coastal to montane forest. Most commonly encountered on alluvial terraces within riparian forest.

Flowering: Spring [October - December]
Fruiting:    Summer - Autumn [January - April]

My Lists: Coastal, ErosionControl, Rongoa, Wetland

Kunzea ericoides (Kanuka)
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Kanuka (Kunzea ericoides)

Kunzea ericoides, Kanuka tree, is a fast growing tree found throughout the north of the South Island. The leaves are softer to touch than Manuka and has smaller white flowers in Summer. It is very hardy, tolerating drought, frosts and poor soils. It is a primary colonising plant and used for revegetation as a nurse plant. Both manuka and kanuka are used as a nurse crop with other early colonizing plants for revegetation / restoration planting and are also very effective in erosion control. It is fast-growing, but short-lived, living up to 150 years. A juvenile takes about seven years to reach reproductive maturity. Very hardy.

History of use: The name "tea-tree" comes from the early bushman who used Manuka and Kanuka leaves to brew a drink similar to tea. Captain Cook was the first person to brew tea from manuka and said that it had a very agreeable, bitter taste when made with fresh leaves, but lost some of it piquancy when made with dry leaves. Kanuka leaves produce a tea that isn't quite as flavourful. Both tea-trees supposedly have medicinal uses and properties whose benefits far outweigh any considerations of taste. The leaves, brewed in water, help urinary complaints and reduced fevers.

The Maori and early settlers used to chew young shoots or swallow a drink made from seed capsules as a cure for dysentery and diarrhoea. The liquid from boiling the bark was used to treat constipation, as a sedative to promote sleep and reduce fever, for bathing sore eyes, treating colic, inflamed breasts, scalds and burns. The white gum was applied to scalds and burns and was taken by adults and children to relieve coughing. There are much more medicinal uses to which tea-tree was put to. Kanuka flowers produce a reasonable amount of nectar that is quite favoured by honeybees. The thick golden honey is hard to remove from honeycombs, but is quite popular for its strong taste and reputed antibacterial properties. Nowadays New Zealand’s monofloral Manuka and Kanuka pharmaceutical honey are both renowned for their natural health benefits.

The tough wood was used by Maori for implements such as fern root beater, mauls, paddles, weapons, spade blades, weeders, digging sticks and bird spears. The timber was noted for its straight grain, durability and strength by early European settlers, and was in demand for wheel-spokes, tool handles and other such purposes. Kanuka and Manuka wood is commonly used as firewood, especially for barbeques, or charred into charcoal. Older trees of have their trunks covered with a light brown bark that readily strips off, and is frequently used for fire-kindling. Both Manuka and Kanuka branches have been used to make brush brooms.

Habitat: Coastal to lowland shrubland, regenerating forest and forest margins, also present in montane forest, ultramafic shrubland and very occasionally present in subalpine shrubland.

Flowering: Spring - Summer [September - February]
Fruiting:    Autumn [March - April]

My Lists: ErosionControl, PoorSoils, Rongoa

(Taxonomists recently confirmed that K ericoides, K robusta, and K serotina are all the same species and declared all South Island Kānuka Kunzea ericoides.)

Leptospermum scoparium (Manuka, Tea Tree)
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Manuka, Tea Tree (Leptospermum scoparium)

Leptospermum scoparium, the Manuka tree (or Tea Tree), is a fast growing shrub with abundant white flowers in Summer. The flowers are attractive to bees. Both manuka and kanuka are used as a nurse crop with other early colonizing plants for revegetation / restoration planting and are also very effective in erosion control.

Mānuka is often confused with the related species kānuka (Kunzea ericoides) – the easiest way to tell the difference between the two species in the field is to feel their foliage – mānuka leaves are prickly, while kānuka leaves are soft. Alternatively, the seed capsules of mānuka are large (5–7 mm in diameter) and often remain on the plant year round, whereas the seed capsules of kānuka are much smaller (2.2–4.6 mm in diameter) and are not present for much of the year.

History of use: The wood was often used for tool handles. Mānuka sawdust imparts a delicious flavour when used for smoking meats and fish. It is cultivated in Australia and New Zealand for mānuka honey, produced when honeybees gather the nectar from its flowers, and for the pharmaceutical industry. An essential oil, for which many medicinal claims are made, is produced by steam distillation of its leaves.

Habitat: Abundant from coastal situations to low alpine habitats.

Flowering: Spring - Summer [September - March]
Fruiting:    Autumn - Summer [Throughout the year]

My Lists: ErosionControl, Rongoa, Wetland, WinterPollen

Machaerina rubiginosa (Baumea, Rush)
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Baumea, Rush (Machaerina rubiginosa)

Machaerina rubiginosa, is a vigorous creeping species best used for the revegetation of wetlands. It is found in swampy places throughout the North and South Island. The rush-like leaves are up to 1m or more tall and are bluish to dark green with flowering spike-lets of reddish brown. It needs full sun, ample moisture and plenty of space. Good for erosion control and contaminated / nutrient filled water.

The upright foliage and spreading rhizomatous habit allow the plant to form large dense swards in wet areas. It can grow in water up to a depth of around 50 centimetres. The plant tends to grow taller in permanently damp areas and shorter in ephemeral environments. It is suitable for use in artificial wetlands.

Habitat: Coastal to montane (up to 900 m a.s.l.) in most freshwater wetlands; especially favouring low moor peat bogs, the margins of restiad bogs and their burn pools, more rarely on the margins of lakes, tarns and slow-flowing streams.

Flowering: Spring [October - December]
Fruiting:    [Throughout the year]

My Lists: ErosionControl, Wetland

Muehlenbeckia axillaris (Creeping Pohuehue)
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Creeping Pohuehue (Muehlenbeckia axillaris)

Muehlenbeckia axillaris, commonly known as Creeping Pohuehue or wire vine, is a low dense ground cover, forming wiry mats up to about 1 m in diameter. It spreads along the ground and even underground. It flowers prolifically in summer with masses of small creamy flowers. The flowers are yellowish white, 4-8 mm in diameter, and borne in groups of up to 3 in the axils. Male and female flowers often occur on the same plant and the female flowers form small opaque white fruit. Provides habitat for native copper butterflies. Birds and geckos love the fruit. 

This groundcover has stems and small dark green leaves. Muehlenbeckia axillaris has thin wiry red-brown stems, with small dark green leaves that are less than 1 cm in diameter, and 2–4 mm thick. Prefers full sun. Tolerant of hot, dry conditions. Evergreen. Hardy.

Muehlenbeckia axillaris is primarily grown as an ornamental plant for its unique growth habit and attractive foliage. It is often used in rock gardens, coastal gardens, or other landscapes where its trailing habit can be appreciated. It is also used in erosion control and habitat restoration projects due to its ability to stabilize soil and provide cover for wildlife.

Habitat: Found in subalpine rocky places, riverbeds and and grasslands. 

Flowering: Summer [November - April]
Fruiting:    Autumn [December - April]

My Lists: ErosionControl, Rongoa

Muehlenbeckia complexa (Scrambling Pohuehue)
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Scrambling Pohuehue (Muehlenbeckia complexa)

Muehlenbeckia complexa, commonly called scrambling or small-leaved Pohuehue, is quite vigorous and probably the best species for trimming and topiary. It is semi-deciduous, losing most, or all of its leaves over winter. Grows to 4m or more up suitable supports, and produces swollen white berries with black seeds. Leaves turn bronzy before dropping in late fall/early winter. Any reasonably well drained soil will suit this agreeable groundcover, and it'll tolerate drought, salt spray, and wind. Often found growing in the company of Plagianthus divaricatus.

M. complexa can form dense springy mounds, useful for suppressing weeds. In its native environment, it plays a key role in sealing human and natural disturbances on the forest edge. It also suppresses the growth of introduced weeds, such as blackberry, and promotes increased insect diversity. A wide variety of insect species are associated with M. complexa. It is an important host plant for several endemic species of copper butterflies including the coastal copper (Lycaena salustius). It is also a food source for lizards and birds such as tui, bellbird and kererū, which also feed on the buds and leaves.

Habitat: Found along rocky coasts as well as inland in coastal and montane forests.

Flowering: Spring - Autumn [October - June]
Fruiting:    Winter [July - September]

My Lists: ErosionControl, PoorSoils, Rongoa

Phormium tenax (Harakeke, Swamp Flax)
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Harakeke, Swamp Flax (Phormium tenax)

Phormium tenax, Harakeke, commonly called Swamp Flax, is one of the oldest plant species in New Zealand and it is unique to New Zealand. With its sword-shaped leaves it is a common feature of the New Zealand landscape. It grows up to 2 -3 metres high and its flower stalks can reach up to 4 metres. The flowers are brownish red in Summer, followed by black seed pods that stand upright from the stems. It is very hardy and fast growing with wide environmental tolerances. It will grow in dry and wet conditions, withstand strong and coastal winds and are frost hardy. It is used for hedging or shelter and in mixed native planting. It is also a pioneer plant meaning it should be one of the species planted first in a restoration planting plan as it establishes quickly when planted and shelters other plants.

Plant communities that include Apodasmia similis, Carex maorica, Carex sectaCarex virgata, and Eleocharis acuta often contain Phormium tenax.

History of use: Traditional uses of flax No fibre plant was more important to Maori than flax. Each pa or marae typically had a pa harakeke or flax plantation. Different varieties were specially grown for their strength, softness, colour and fibre content. Traditionally when harakeke leaves were removed from the plant, only the older leaves on the outside were taken. It is believed the three inner layers of the plant represented a family. This outer layer represented the grandparents, whereas the inner layer of new shoots or the child remained to be protected by the next inner layer of leaves, the parents. The uses of the flax fibre were numerous and varied. Clothing, mats, plates to eat off, baskets, ropes, bird snares, lashings, fishing lines and nets were all made from flax. Babies were even given rattles made from flax. Other parts of the plant were also used. Floats or rafts were made out of bundles of dried flower stalks (kokari). The abundant nectar from flax flowers was used to sweeten food and beverages. Flax also had many medicinal uses. The sticky sap or gum that flax produces was applied to boils and wounds and used for toothache. Flax leaves were used in binding broken bones and matted leaves were used as dressings. Flax root juice was routinely applied to wounds as a disinfectant. Today, flax is used in soaps, hand crèmes, shampoos and a range of other cosmetics. Flax seed oil can also be found for sale.

Habitat: Common from lowland and coastal areas to montane forest, usually but not exclusively, in wetlands and in open ground along riversides.

Flowering: Summer [November to December]
Fruiting:    Summer [January to March]

My Lists: ErosionControl, Rongoa, Wetland

Pittosporum eugenioides (Tarata, Lemonwood)
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Tarata, Lemonwood (Pittosporum eugenioides)

Pittosporum eugenioides, Tarata, commonly called Lemonwood, is a bushy tree ideal as a specimen or for hedging. Lemon scented foliage and fragrant flowers (spring).

Great in a windy position and also provides a barrier for the surrounding more intolerant plants. Pittosporums can be excellent stand-alone features, hedges, screens, windbreaks, shrubberies or topiary specimens. The highly ornamental, evergreen foliage almost always looks well-groomed and responds well to pruning.  Frost tender when very young. Prefers a sunny to part shade position, does not mind the wind, and thrives in soil with good drainage. Tarata is somewhat drought-resistant therefore rainfall is not a major factor in its survival.

It has proved to be a great plant for establishing a quick canopy in a restoration project. It then provides an opportunity to introduce understory, shade loving plants to the same location, later planting underneath the lemonwood trees. Lemonwood is on the recommended list for replanting “small trees up to 6m.”

History of use: Maori used the gum from the bark in complex scent formula along with parts of other plants.

Habitat: Common tree of regenerating and mature forest in coastal to montane situations. It is found in forest clearings and along forest margins up to 600m above sea level.

Flowering: Spring [October - December]
Fruiting:    Autumn [March - May]

My Lists: ErosionControl, Rongoa

Pittosporum tenuifolium (Kohuhu, Black Matipo)
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Kohuhu, Black Matipo (Pittosporum tenuifolium)

Pittosporum tenuifolium, Kohuhu, commonly called Black Matipo, is endemic and widespread throughout New Zealand. It is an extremely popular, adaptable and fast growing. Shiny light-green foliage with wavy margins and reddish brown branchlets. Fragrant dark red flowers in spring. Excellent plant for hedging and shelter. Tolerates wind, drought, frost, coastal conditions. A key species for forest revegetation and also a useful riparian edge plant. Kōhūhū grows particularly quickly at forest edges located at the bottom of high terraces. Sun or shade. Hardy. Evergreen.

The flowers’ colour ranges from dark-red to dark-purple turning almost black as the flowers age.  Nectar fills the flowers. The flowers exude a honey-scented fragrance in the evenings with the scent being more obvious in slightly damp conditions. This attracts moths and night-flying insects, New Zealand’s indigenous pollinators. Fertilised flowers develop into small fruits that blacken as they ripen.

Habitat: A small tree of coastal to montane shrubland and forested habitats. Preferring successional habitats.

Flowering: Spring - Summer [October - January]
Fruiting:    Autumn [February - May]

My Lists: ErosionControl, Rongoa

Plagianthus divaricatus (Makaka, Salt Marsh Ribbonwood)
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Makaka, Salt Marsh Ribbonwood (Plagianthus divaricatus)

Plagianthus divaricatus, commonly called Salt Marsh Ribbonwood, is a dense twiggy shrub with small narrow leaves. Small sweetly scented flowers. Good hedging, deciduous, cold hardy. Will tolerate salt winds and wet soils. It can be found in association with (but not limited to) Coprosma propinqua, Muehlenbeckia complexa, Cyperus ustulatus, and Phormium tenax.

Found in sheltered coastal shorelines throughout New Zealand, in areas with salt swamp, sandy banks and throughout estuaries. As its common name suggests, it is salt and wet tolerant. As with P. regius, it has a juvenile and adult form where the leaves become larger as it grows. Used as a coastal wetland and restoration plant.

Habitat: Found alongside salty swamps or damp gravelly places in coastal regions.

Flowering: Spring [September - November]
Fruiting:    Summer [December - March]

My Lists: ErosionControl, Rongoa, Wetland

Plagianthus regius (Manatu, Lowland Ribbonwood)
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Manatu, Lowland Ribbonwood (Plagianthus regius)

Plagianthus regius, Manatu, or Lowland Ribbonwood is a deciduous tree grown for its foliage and flowers. A profusion of small white or green flowers appears in large panicles in spring making it easier to distinguish from the similar lacebark.

Like many New Zealand native Plagianthus regius has a juvenile form that becomes a straight trunked medium to large tree. The juvenile form has bushy interlacing branches with small leaves, while an older tree will tend to have larger leaves, sometimes with the lower parts of the tree still displaying divaricating leaves. 

Habitat: Coastal to lower montane. Often a prominent tree in lowland alluvial forest.

Flowering: Spring [September - November]
Fruiting:    [December - January]

My Lists: ErosionControl